Chinese Drywall

Jan 20

Since we are known as the best team of Phoenix home inspectors we are often asked about Chinese drywall problems.  The fact is that, Arizona’s major metro areas of Phoenix and Tucson are among the regions suspected of having toxic Chinese drywall installed in properties.  Most of the suspect drywall is believed to have been installed during the boom years between 2004 and 2007 but may include other dates.  The known problems associated with Chinese drywall include a rotten egg smell, corrosion at metallic components and adverse health effects.  These problems result from the emission of high hydrogen sulfide levels from the components of Chinese drywall.  The emissions are known to worsen during periods of high heat and humidity.  To date relatively few complaints from Arizona have been recorded.  The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) reports 5 complaints from Arizona as of October 1, 2009.  This may be a result of the dry climate in Arizona not yet producing the conditions necessary for high emissions of hydrogen sulfide.  Arizona could have a delay in reporting of problems if the dry climate has simply slowed the inevitable adverse effects.  Almost 85% of the cases of Chinese drywall recorded to date were found in homes located in Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi.

On May 25, 2010 the CPSC formally issued an outline of test results including a list of problem drywall manufacturer’s names.  Of the samples tested by the CPSC, the top ten sulfur-emitting samples were all manufactured in China.  Some of the Chinese drywall had emissions 100 times greater than drywall produced elsewhere.  This report, can be viewed at the CPSC website at  www.cpsc.gov/info/drywall  along with sample photos and more guidance.

To date, the studies that have been conducted involve Chinese drywall installed in residential homes.  Recently an Interim Remediation Guide was released and the recommendations involve extreme measures when Chinese drywall is found.  The recommendations are to replace all problem drywall, replace all fire safety/alarm devices (including smoke and carbon monoxide detectors), replace all electrical components and wiring (including outlets, switches and circuit breakers), and replace all gas service piping and fire suppression sprinkler systems

It is important to be aware of the signs associated with the presence of Chinese drywall:

  • There may be a rotten egg, sulfur-like, or acid type smell at the property.
  • The building may have continuous failures of air conditioner coils, fans and interior components that exhibit excessive metal corrosion.
  • Tarnished metal at interior possessions may be noted.
  • Electrical wiring behind cover plates may appear black from corrosion at the copper wiring.
  • Occupants may have experienced mild to severe upper respiratory problems, nose bleeds, headaches or other serious medical conditions.

It is not easy to detect the presence of Chinese drywall.  Confirmation of Chinese drywall usually involves removal of a section drywall to view the writing on the back which may state the name of the manufacturer or have a “MADE IN CHINA” stamp.  At this point in time it is critical to stay informed and be on alert for the signs noted above.  As the premier team of home inspectors in Phoenix we will keep you posted.

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10 Easy Ways to Save Energy in Your Home

Dec 16

Saving Energy

Most people don’t know how easy it is to make their homes run on less energy. Drastic reductions in heating, cooling and electricity costs can be accomplished through very simple changes, most of which homeowners can do themselves. Of course, for homeowners who want their homes to take advantage of the most up-to-date knowledge and systems in home energy-efficiency, energy auditors can perform in-depth testing to find the best energy solutions for your particular home.

Why make your home more energy efficient? Here are a few good reasons:

  • Federal, state, utility and local jurisdictions’ financial incentives, such as tax breaks, are very advantageous in most parts of the U.S.
  • It saves money. It costs less to power a home that has been converted to be more energy-efficient.
  • It increases indoor comfort levels.
  • It reduces our impact on climate change. Many scientists now believe that excessive energy consumption contributes significantly to global warming.
  • It reduces pollution. Conventional power production introduces pollutants that find their way into the air, soil and water supplies.

1. Find better ways to heat and cool your house.

As much as half of the energy used in homes goes toward heating and cooling. The following are a few ways that energy bills can be reduced through adjustments to the heating and cooling systems:

  • Install a ceiling fan. Ceiling fans can be used in place of air conditioners, which require a large amount of energy.
  • Periodically replace air filters in air conditioners and heaters.
  • Set thermostats to an appropriate temperature. Specifically, they should be turned down at night and when no one is home. In most homes, about 2% of the heating bill will be saved for each degree that the thermostat is lowered for at least eight hours each day. Turning down the thermostat from 75° F to 70°F, for example, saves about 10% on heating costs.
  • Install a programmable thermostat. A programmable thermostat saves money by allowing heating and cooling appliances to be automatically turned down during times that no one is home and at night. Programmable thermostats contain no mercury and, in some climate zones, can save up to $150 per year in energy costs.
  • Install a wood stove or a pellet stove. These are more efficient sources of heat than furnaces.
  • At night, curtains drawn over windows will better insulate the room.

2. Install a tankless water heater.

Demand water heaters (tankless or instantaneous) provide hot water only as it is needed. They don’t produce the standby energy losses associated with storage water heaters, which will save on energy costs. Demand water heaters heat water directly without the use of a storage tank. Therefore, they avoid the standby heat losses required by traditional storage water heaters. When a hot water tap is turned on, cold water travels through a pipe into the unit. Either a gas burner or an electric element heats the water. As a result, demand water heaters deliver a constant supply of hot water. You don’t need to wait for a storage tank to fill up with enough hot water.

3. Replace incandescent lights.

The average household dedicates 11% of its energy budget to lighting. Traditional incandescent lights convert approximately only 10% of the energy they consume into light, while the rest becomes heat. The use of new lighting technologies, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), can reduce energy use required by lighting by 50% to 75%. Advances in lighting controls offer further energy savings by reducing the amount of time lights are on but not being used. Here are some facts about CFLs and LEDs:

  • CFLs use 75% less energy and last about 10 times longer than traditional incandescent bulbs.
  • LEDs last even longer than CFLs and consume less energy.
  • LEDs have no moving parts and, unlike CFLs, they contain no mercury.

4. Seal and insulate your home.

Sealing and insulating your home is one of the most cost-effective ways to make a home more comfortable and energy efficient -– and you can do it yourself. A tightly sealed home can improve comfort and indoor air quality while reducing utility bills. An energy auditor can be hired to assess envelope leakage and recommend fixes that will dramatically increase comfort and energy savings.

The following are some common places where leakage may occur:

  • electrical outlets;
  • mail slots;
  • around pipes and wires;
  • wall- or window-mounted air conditioners;
  • attic hatches;
  • fireplace dampers;
  • weatherstripping around doors;
  • baseboards;
  • window frames; and
  • switch plates.

Because hot air rises, air leaks are most likely to occur in the attic. Homeowners can perform a variety of repairs and maintenance to their attics that save them money on cooling and heating, such as:

  • Plug the large holes. Locations in the attic where leakage is most likely to be the greatest are where walls meet the attic floor, behind and under attic knee walls, and in dropped-ceiling areas.
  • Seal the small holes. You can easily do this by looking for areas where the insulation is darkened. Darkened insulation is a result of dusty interior air being filtered by insulation before leaking through small holes in the building envelope. In cold weather, you may see frosty areas in the insulation caused by warm, moist air condensing and then freezing as it hits the cold attic air. In warmer weather, you’ll find water staining in these same areas. Use expanding foam or caulk to seal the openings around plumbing vent pipes and electrical wires. Cover the areas with insulation after the caulk is dry.
  • Seal up the attic access panel with weatherstripping. You can cut a piece of fiberglass or rigid foam board insulation the same size as the attic hatch and glue it to the back of the attic access panel. If you have pull-down attic stairs or an attic door, these should be sealed in a similar manner.

5. Install efficient shower heads and toilets.

The following systems can be installed to conserve water usage in homes:

  • low-flow shower heads. They are available in different flow rates, and some have a pause button which shuts off the water while the bather lathers up;
  • low-flow toilets. Toilets consume 30% to 40% of the total water used in homes, making them the biggest water users. Replacing an older 3.5-gallon toilet with a modern, low-flow 1.6-gallon toilet can reduce usage an average of two gallons-per-flush (GPF), saving 12,000 gallons of water per year. Low-flow toilets usually have “1.6 GPF” marked on the bowl behind the seat or inside the tank;
  • vacuum-assist toilets. These types of toilets have a vacuum chamber which uses a siphon action to suck air from the trap beneath the bowl, allowing it to quickly fill with water to clear waste. Vacuum toilets are relatively quiet; and
  • dual-flush toilets. Dual-flush toilets have been used in Europe and Australia for years, and are now gaining in popularity in the U.S. Dual-flush toilets let you choose between a 1-gallon (or less) flush for liquid waste, and a 1.6-gallon flush for solid waste. Dual-flush 1.6-GPF toilets reduce water consumption by an additional 30%.

6. Use appliances and electronics responsibly.

Appliances and electronics account for about 20% of household energy bills in a typical U.S. home. The following are tips that will reduce the required energy of electronics and appliances:

  • Refrigerators and freezers should not be located near the stove, dishwasher or heat vents, or exposed to direct sunlight. Exposure to warm areas will force them to use more energy to remain cool.
  • Computers should be shut off when not in use. If unattended computers must be left on, their monitors should be shut off. According to some studies, computers account for approximately 3% of all energy consumption in the United States.
  • Use efficient “Energy Star”-rated appliances and electronics. These devices, approved by the DOE and the EPA’s Energy Star Program, include TVs, home theater systems, DVD players, CD players, receivers, speakers and more. According to the EPA, if just 10% of homes used energy-efficient appliances, it would reduce carbon emissions by the equivalent of 1.7 million acres of trees.
  • Chargers, such as those for laptops and cell phones, consume energy when they are plugged in. When they are not connected to electronics, chargers should be unplugged.
  • Laptop computers consume considerably less electricity than desktop computers.

7. Install daylighting as an alternative to electrical lighting.

Daylighting is the practice of using natural light to illuminate the home’s interior. It can be achieved using the following approaches:

  • skylights. It’s important that they be double-pane or they may not be cost-effective. Flashing skylights correctly is key to avoiding leaks;
  • lightshelves. Light shelves are passive devices designed to bounce light deep into a building. They may be interior or exterior. Light shelves can introduce light into a space up to 2½ times the distance from the floor to the top of the window, and advanced light shelves may introduce four times that amount;
  • clerestory windows.  Clerestory windows are short, wide windows set high on the wall. Protected from the summer sun by the roof overhang, they allow winter sun to shine through for natural lighting and warmth; and
  • light tubes.  Light tubes use a special lens designed to amplify low-level light and reduce light intensity from the midday sun. Sunlight is channeled through a tube coated with a highly reflective material, then enters the living space through a diffuser designed to distribute light evenly.

8. Insulate windows and doors.

About one-third of the home’s total heat loss usually occurs through windows and doors. The following are ways to reduce energy lost through windows and doors:

  • Seal all window edges and cracks with rope caulk. This is the cheapest and simplest option.
  • Windows can be weatherstripped with a special lining that is inserted between the window and the frame. For doors, weatherstrip around the whole perimeter to ensure a tight seal when closed. Install quality door sweeps on the bottom of the doors, if they aren’t already in place.
  • Install storm windows at windows with only single panes. A removable glass frame can be installed over an existing window.
  • If existing windows have rotted or damaged wood, cracked glass, missing putty, poorly fitting sashes, or locks that don’t work, they should be repaired or replaced.

9. Cook smart.

An enormous amount of energy is wasted while cooking. The following recommendations and statistics illustrate less wasteful ways of cooking:

  • Convection ovens are more efficient that conventional ovens. They use fans to force hot air to circulate more evenly, thereby allowing food to be cooked at a lower temperature. Convection ovens use approximately 20% less electricity than conventional ovens.
  • Microwave ovens consume approximately 80% less energy than conventional ovens.
  • Pans should be placed on the correctly-sized heating element or flame.
  • Lids make food heat more quickly than pans that do not have lids.
  • Pressure cookers reduce cooking time dramatically.
  • When using conventional ovens, food should be placed on the top rack. The top rack is hotter and will cook food faster.

10. Change the way you wash your clothes.

  • Do not use the “half load” setting on your washer. Wait until you have a full load of clothes, as the “half load” setting saves less than half of the water and energy.
  • Avoid using high-temperature settings when clothes are not that dirty. Water that is 140 degrees uses far more energy than 103 degrees for a “warm” setting, but 140 degrees isn’t that much better for washing purposes.
  • Clean the lint trap before you use the dryer, every time. Not only is excess lint a fire hazard, but it will prolong the amount of time required for your clothes to dry.
  • If possible, air-dry your clothes on lines and racks.
  • Spin-dry or wring clothes out before putting them into a dryer.
Homeowners who take the initiative to make these changes usually discover that the energy savings are more than worth the effort. However, you should consider that inspectors can make this process much easier and perform a more comprehensive assessment of energy saving potential than you can.  Thank you to InterNACHI for providing the content for this post.
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Heating and Cooling Hazard Pics

Nov 30

Even when everything looks fine to the untrained eye, many hazards can be lurking around a home. Here’s a few pictures of some heating a cooling hazards we’ve run into.

AC unit not bearing on stand

Coil hail damage

Condensate to gas can

Duct insulation skin failure

Furnace gas flex into cabinet

Open duct seam

Sewer vent too close to cooler

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Attic Access Ladders

Aug 26

In an effort to improve attic accessibility, ladder assemblies have been developed.  Homeowners interested in expanding their storage options may have an attic pull-down ladder installed to ease access to the area.  While potentially improving some of the safety concerns associated with entering an attic, they end up receiving many defect notations in home inspection reports.

Pull-down style attic access ladders are a popular improvement item at home stores for the owner with expanding storage needs.  Believing the installation is simple, homeowners often tackle the installation themselves.  Chances are, the project will not go as the manufacturer intended.

During a recent Phoenix home inspection we encountered an attic pull-down ladder with multiple critical flaws that rendered a device intended for safe attic access into an immediate cause for concern.  What common problems might exist?  Here is a brief list:

  1. These assemblies are often installed in garages and they most frequently have a thin wooden cover to seal the opening when retracted.  This represents a violation of the fire separation requirement for the garage ceiling and would need correction.
  2. Wooden ladder assemblies are often cut improperly at the base causing hazard and/or excessive stress on the assembly components.
  3. The hinge area is a chronic problem with these ladders and can result in an extremely unsafe assembly.
  4. The opening frame attachment to existing roof structure components are often improper or fasteners may be loose.
  5. The roof structure may be improperly altered by the installer.

As a long time Phoenix home inspector, I find it paradoxical that something intended to provide easier and safer attic access is so often one of the most dangerous things in the home.  Notice the picture above.  If you go to buy an attic access ladder, consider this aluminum style.  Some of the concerns are lessened with aluminum assemblies.  Also remember, an attic pull-down ladder is not an afternoon with a six-pack of beer project.  Leave this one to a professional installer.

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